Vipassana Meditation

To all of you, of the ways to the Purification of the Mind, there is Only One way, that is the Path pointed out by the Lord Buddha, which is the Four Satipatthana. If we wish to bring ourselves to overcome suffering and find true peace and happiness in life, we should diligently practice Satipatthana Vipassana Kammatthana, because it is only in this way that we can truly overcome suffering.

วันอาทิตย์ที่ 8 พฤศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2552

The Only Way

An Introduction to Vipassana Meditation
Venerable Ajarn Tong Sirimangalo

Translated and Edited by
Kathryn F. Chindaporn

(Phra Thep Siddhajarn Vi)


Homage to the Blessed One, the Noble One, the Perfectly Enlightened Buddha.

Eka Yano Ayam Bikkhave Maggo Sattanam Visuddhiya Soka Paridevanam Samatikkamaya Dukkha Domanassanam Atthangamaya Nayassa Adhigamaya Nayassa Adhigamaya Nibbanassa Sacchikiriyaya Yadidam Cattaro Satipattahana`ti.

There is only one way bhikkus to the purification of beings to overcome sorrow and sadness to the disappearance of pain and suffering to attain the right path to realize nibbana. That is the to say the four foundations of mindfulness.


Best wishes and auspicious blessings to all of you who wish to overcome the mass of suffering and are seeking to realize way of happiness as taught by the Lord Buddha.

At the present time l would like to explain the One way Path the path of purification which leads to four noble Truths and to realization of Nibbana.This path is the practice of Satipatthana vippassana Kammatthana, or Insight Meditation based on the four foundations of mindfulness which is the highest teaching given by the Perfectly enlightened Buddha.
This teaching is the natural Law discovered by the Lord Buddha, it is eternal truth amata Damma which can truly lead all beings to overcome suffering.

Nowadays our world is full of heat, turmoil and confusion. Everywhere in the world in society, the same old problems stressful conditions arise which are very difficult to overcome. People disagree, argue, and fight with each other. They curse at and discriminate against the each other.Peopleare jealous and tell lies cheat and steal from each other.desiring gain,rank and praise,people fight argue with and destroy each other everywhere in the human world.

These unwholesome conditions are not reated by the natural environment ,rather thesesuffering conditions are created by human beings themselves.

The teachings of every religion attempt to solve these problems and bring peace and happiness to the world by teaching people to do god deeds and to avoid evil deeds.

The perfectly Enlightened Buddha ,the founder of Buddhism ,not only taught people to do good deeds and avoid evil deeds, the Lord Buddha also taught people to purify theirs hearts and minds. As blessed One taught in the Ovada Patimokkha, Admonition of the Buddha:
Sabba Papassa Akaranam( Avoid evil deeds)
Kusalassupasampada ( Cultivate wholesome deeds)
Etam Buddhana Sasanam ( This is the teaching of all the Buddhas )
The method of mental purification is not specifically taught within any other religious tradition in the world it is found explicitly only within the teachings of Buddha.

The lord Buddha discovered that in order for people to truly overcome all kinds of unwholesome negative conditions and suffering ,their minds must be purified of Kilesa ( defilements or mental pollutions ,which consists of desire ,anger and delution). Defilements are the cause of all destructive thoughts ,speech and actions.Thus defilements are the root cause of all the suffering in the world. Once their minds have been purified of the defilements ,people would not perform evil deeds.Their mind thus prified people would be able to perform only good and wholesome deeds.Therefore true goodness and happiness arise with the purification of the minds. Once the mind is purified ,one can be truly happy .Only then can suffering which is caused by the defilements ,finally cease.

The way purify the mind the practical method which the Perfectly Enlightened Buddha has handed down to us is called Kammatthana ( Meditational exercise). The basis of practice which is most perfect and most direct method of menthal development leading to the purification of the mind appears in the scriptures,in the Mahasatipattana sutta of the Digha Nikaya ( the great discourse on the four foundations of Mindfulness of the long discourses). It is called Sattipatthana Vipassana Kammatthana, Insight Meditation based on the four Foundations of Mindfulness.

In this teaching the Lord Buddha pointed out that this practice is the Only way leading to the purification of the mind, leading one to overcome suffering ,leading directly to the realization of the Noble Path .Fruition and Nibbana. This is the path to Purify and to true Peace and happiness.

What is Insight?

Vipassana is a Pali word which means: Seeing clearly, seeing specially or seeing through( Vi-clearly,specially,into,intuitive, wisdom, intuitive knowledge. Vipassana is often translated as Insight.

Seeing what clearly? Insight into what?

Vipassana means seeing through the true nature of reality or insight into the true nature of reality. Vipassana is the direct and intuitive understanding of the true nature of all mental and physical phenomena.

Vipassana is intuitive knowledge or Insight into the true nature of Nama ( Mind: consciousness, mentality) and ( Body: Materiality ,physical form), which make up the five Agregates of Existance (Panca khanda: Rupa ( body , physical matter),Vedana ( feeling), Sanna (memory,perception),Sankhara (menthal formations,volition), Vinnana ( consciousness).

Vipassana is the direct realization of the true nature of Nama and rupa. All conditions whether internal or external, mental or material are Impermanent, Suffering and Non –self ( Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta) .The maditator who develops Insight Knowledge ( Vipassana nana) will realize that everything insight oneslf and in the world outside of oneself is constantly changing, uncertain or Impermanent; is stressful ,dissatisfactory or suffering and is uncontrollable,devoid of substance, not belonging to oneself,or Non-self. These Three characteristics are true Nature of all phenomena.

What is Mindfulness?

Vipassana is based on Four Sattipatthana, the Four Founations of Mindfulness. That is to say Insight is realized by the consistent and progressive application of four foundations of mindfulness.
Satipatthana as the key to Vipassana can be found in the Tipitaka ( The There Pali canon) in the Maha Satipatthana Sutta of the Digha Nikaya (The great discourse on the four foundations of Mindfulness, Sutta No.22 of Long Discources) and in the Satipatthana Sutta of the Majihima Nikaya ( No.10 of the Middle Length Discources) as well as in other discources.

Sati is derived from the pali word sar, which means: to remember, to recollect.

Sati means more than memory. It means. Contemplation ,reflection, recollection, heedfulness, carefulness, collected attention, awarness,or vigilance. Sati is often translated as Mindfulness.

Patthana comes from the pali word uppatthana, which means: support, establishment, base, application, or foundation.

Satipatthana means the dhamma ( natural law or condition) upon which one`s attentive awareness may be applied in four bases. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

The Four Foundation of Mindfulness are:

In short we can memorize:
Body, Feelings, Mind and Mind objects.

In practice of the four Foundations of Mindfulness one directs the attention and comprehensive awareness to observe and mentally note (or acknowledge) the various states which arise through the Mind and Body in each moment. Mindfulness and awareness are aimed at observing the Three characteristics arising through the five Aggregates of existence ( Panca Khandha) namely the Mind and body as they appear in the present moment.


It is said that at one time the Lord Buddha was traveling through the land of Kurus ,a tribe of people in the village town of the Kurus called Kammassadhamma ( Near modern day New delhi in th suburb called Indrapastra) with a company of 500 Bikkhus.

There the Lord Buddha took the opportunity to give a detailed discourse on the four foundaditions of Mindfulness.

According to tradition ( Bhadantacariya Buddhagosa-Da ii 481f., MA. I 184) the Kurus People were descended from a tribe of people who were full of wisdom and whose sense faculties were quite healthy and whose temperaments were well disposed to deep contemplation.

The entire village practiced Mindfulness as a matter of course in their daily activities, from the rulers to the servants, whether they were ploughing the fields or pounding rice or administering the village, everybody applied the Four Foundation of Mindfulness.
They exhorted each other: ‘Which Foundation of Mindfulness are you practicing today?
‘Well done! You have not wasted your birth as a human being! You have not wasted this rare opportunity to meet the Teachings of the Lord Buddha who has been born in the world for the benefit of persons such as you!
And scolding the ones who were lazy and negligent:
‘Even though you are born a human being, you are behaving as if dead!

And so he Lord Buddha, inspired by the audience of Kurus who were very receptive and naturally mindful and profoundly contemplative, took the opportunity to exhort the Bhikkhus (the 600 Brethren who accompanied him) on the value, technique and benefits of the practice.

The Lord Buddha declared:
Ekayano Ayam Bhikkhave Maggo
Sattanam Visuddhaiya
Soka Paridevanam Samatikkamaya
Dukkha Domanassanam Atthangamaya
Nayassa Adhigamaya
Nibbanassa Sacchikiriyaya
Yadidam Cattaro Satipatthana ti.

There is Only One Way, Bhikkhus,*
To the Purification of Beings,
To Overcome Sorrow and Sadness,
To the Disappearance of Pain and Suffering,
To Attain the Truth, the Noble Path
To Realize Nibbana.
That is to say, the Four Foundations of Mindfulness

(*The word Bhikkhu here refers to those who have ‘Gone Forth’ or have received the higher ordination as monks in the Lord Buddha’s Dispensation, it also refers to any one who has realized the dangers of the cycle of Samsara, the endless rounds of birth, death and rebirth and who seeks to be liberated from the vicious cycle.)

There is Only One Way

Ekayano Ayam Bhikkhave Maggo
(There in Only One Way, Bhikkhus)

There Load Buddha has taught the Ekayano Magga, which means ‘the one way path,’or ‘the only way’.
This Path is called the One Way Path, the Only Path, or The Path of the One, as the Lord Buddha is the Only One who could discover this Path.
This Path is specifically found Only in the Teachings of the Buddha. Therefore it is called the Way of the One, the Path of the One.
This Path must be practiced and realized ‘alone’ by oneself. One much practice this path for path for oneself, in order to realize the truth by oneself. Thus it is called the ‘single path’.
This Path leads in Only One Direction. It is a One Way Path, it does not branch, thus is it called the Sole Way, it leads solely in one direction.
This Path leads directly to One Destination, Nibbana. Nibbana is the final destination. This is the Only Way to realize Nibbana.
All perfectly Enlightened Buddha (Sammasambuddha), Silent Buddhas (Paccedkha Buddha) and Noble Disciples (Ariya Savaka) have ultimately realized Nibbana by way of this Path.
All of the 84,000 Teachings of the Buddha eventually merge into this Path. Thus this Path is the Pinnacle of the Lord Buddha’s Teaching, leading to the Highest Good, the Supreme Happiness of Nibana.
This is the Ultimate Path.
It is the Only Way.
The practice of Satipatthana Vipassana contains the Heart and Essence and pinnacle of all the 84,000 Teachings of the Perfectly Enlightened Buddha.
This Truth Teaching the Lord Buddha taught to all of the Noble Disciples, from the beginning of his Dispensation until he passed away into Parinibbana 45 years later. Not only did the Lord Buddha lead countless numbers of Disciples to realize Nibbana by way of this Path, the Lord Buddha also handed down the Teachings to the Future generations of Disciples, with this guarantee:
Yeneva Yanti Nibbanam Duddha Desanca Savaka Eka Yaneba Maggena Satipatthana Sannina ti.
All Buddhas and Noble Ones have realized Nibbana By following the One Way Path of Mindfulness.


Sattanam Visuddhaya
(To the Purification of Beings)

This Path purifies the minds of beings. Greed, anger and delusion, the mental defilements, kilesa, which pollute the minds of beings and are the source of all suffering, can me uprooted and destroyed as a result of Satipatthana practiced. The beings who practice this Path can be Purified.
The practice of Satipatthana Vipassana purifies the mind of the practitioner, first by attenuating the defilements and then by uprooting and destroying the latent mental impurities, anusayakilesa. The purification process may be gradual, depending upon the meritorious, wholesome qualities, punna kusal, and the accumulated perfections, wholesome qualities, punna kusala, and the accumulated perfections, parami, and depending upon the unwholesome mental qualities of each individual.
By virtue of this purification process the mind of undeveloped person with gross latent defilements, an ordinary worlding or puthujjana, could be purified and refined until developing higher humanistic and moral qualities of the heart and mind, thus becoming a virtuous person, a kalyanajjana Vipassana, the anusaya kilesa would eventually be eradicated and destroyed, thus purifying the mind until such a person realized Nibbana and becomes a Noble One, or Ariya Puggala.
Even animals who simply have contact with this practice can develop great wholesome consciousness, Mahakusala citta, and may be reborn in the higher realms, thus embarking on the Path to Purification, as this story of the past illustrates:

At one time while the Lord Buddha was residing at the temple of Jetavana, after a strong wind storm a parrot was blown into the temple of the Bhikkhumins, there it lay wet and wounded until the chief nun discovered it and then took care of it until it was healed.
Afterwards the parrot resided in the nunnery and the Sisters taught it how to repeat the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. The parrot flew about happily singing: “Body Feelings, Mind, Mind Objects…” all throughout the day. One day it was caught by a hawk which killed the parrot. In the moment of his death the parrot was repeating: “Body, Feelings, Mind. Mind Objects…” and by the power of this wholesome mind he was immediately reborn in heaven.

But Only human beings and celestial beings in the Heavenly Realms or in the Realms of Brahma can realize Nibbana, as in the case of Manduka Devaputta, the Frog Deity, who was as is nt case of Manduka Devaputta, the Frog Deity, who was reborn in heaven before attaining the first stage of enlightenment, Sotapanna (Vsm. VII, 51):
At one time while the Blessed One was teaching the Bhamma to the inhabitants of the City of Campa, on the Banks of the Gaggara Lake, a Frog, listening to the discourse, developed great wholesome consciousness while listening to the Lore doped great wholesome consciousness while listening to the Load Buddha’s voice. At that moment a cowherd leaned against his staff, which happened to crush the frog’s head and the frog was immediately reborn in the Heaven of the 33 Deities, inside of a celestial palace (Vimana), as if awakening from a dream.
Thinking to himself, ‘So now I am here? What deed did I do?’
He realized that the had been reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven as the result of his pure mind in the moment of listening to the Lord Buddha’s Discourse.
He departed with his diving palace at once to the Blessed One and worshipped at his feet. Although the Lord knew all about it, he asked him:
‘Who now pays homage at my feet,
Shining with glory and success,
Illumination all around
With beauty so outstanding?”

‘In my last life I was a frog’
The waters of a pond my home;
A cowherd’s staff ended my life
While listening to your Dhamma.’

The blessed One hen taught him the Dhamma. Eighty four thousand sentient beings gained penetration into the Truth and Madduka Devaputta, the Frog Deity, realized the state of Sotapanna, and with his celestial palace, he smiled and disappeared.
In this way the minds of beings can be purified by the efficacy of the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana.

Overcoming Sorrow and Sadness

Soka Paridevanam samtikkamaya
(To Overcome Sorrow and Sadness)

This Path helps one who suffers from Sorrow and Sadness overcome the past unfortunate experience and be freed from grief and despair. When the mind has become purified and the defilements are gradually subdued and eliminated, one’s mind becomes tranquilized, and sorrow and sadness can be released.
Once there was a lady pilot from England who came to practice Vipassan. Before that, both she and her last husband ran a small air charter business. One day she was delayed getting to the airfield on time and her husband took off without her. During the flight, the aircraft developed engine trouble and crashed, killing her husband. She was filled with grief, sorrow and remorse. Nothing could ease her sorrow.
After some months she decided to go on a holiday to Asia, and came to Thailand. After touring for some time, she was recommended to practice meditation, and came to the center in Chiangmai. At first her mind was full of sorrow and regret. She could not concentrate and she cried everyday. But as the days passed by and she continued to practice Mindfulness, she gained some relief, and her mind became calm. Soon she realized that everything in this world is Impermanent; that even happiness doesn’t last; that we cannot always control life to be as we want it to be; and that sometimes we cannot control events in life. As a result of this realization, she felt as if her sorrow and sadness had been lifted away, and she felt better prepared to begin her life anew.
This is only one example from modern times, but even in the Lord Buddha’s time there were many persons healed by efficacy of the practice and by virtue of is also became enlightened.

The story of Patacara Their (Dh.VIII.12) is an example:
It is said that during the time the Lord Buddha was residing in Jetavana, Patacaa, the beautiful daughter of a wealthy merchant in Savatthi, fell in love with the family slave. When the time came for her to be married to a young man from a good family, she ran away with her lover and they lived in a hut in a small village as best as they could, her husband working in the fields during the daytime, while she stayed at home and cooked and tended the fire.
After a while she became pregnant, and insisted on returning to her parental home as was the custom in India in those days. But her husband put the journey off with various excused, fearing the wrath of her family should he show his face… Many months passed by and as her time to give birth had nearly come, she decided to leave without her husband and so informing the neighbors, she departed on foot.
When her husband returned home to find she’d gone, he hurried to catch up with her one the road and finally overtaking her begged her to return with him. This she refused to do and after a certain distance down the road she felt the labor pains coming on. After much difficulty she gave birth to a son by roadside, and they returned to their home together.
After some time Patacara became pregnant again and requested to visit her family as before. Again her husband refused, and finally after much delay she set out again, this time carrying her first born son on her hip as she started down the road towards her family home.
As evening began Patacara felt the labor pains coming on, at the same time thunder clouds darkened the sky and an unseasonable storm began. Her husband rushed up to her just as the downpour began and he hurriedly went into the jungle to cut some braches to build a shelter for his wife and child. Patacara pains increased. Entering the jungle, her husband stepped upon a poison after a difficult and painful birth, Patacara spent the night hugging her children trying to protect them from the rain and cold, waiting for her husband to return.
In the morning she discovered his body and very much distraught decided to go home to her family. As she continued walking on the highway she came upon a river, which was very swollen and flooded as a result of the storm. The river water flowed high and fast along the banks forcing her to carry the children across one at time. Leaving the older child on the near bank, she carried the newly born infant across and placed him down on her robe. Then she began to cross the river to fetch the older boy. Halfway across the river, an eagle swooped down and caught up the newborn baby, who was still red like a piece of meat. Patacara frantically waved her arms and screamed, trying to frighten the eagle away. The older son believing that his mother was calling him, jumped into the river and was swept away by the swift flood waters… Standing in the middle of the river, Patacara became hysterical and weeping crossed over to the other side, and headed for her family home.
At the edge of the village she inquired about the welfare of her family, asking, ‘How is the family so-and-so?’ The farmer at the edge of the village replied, ‘Please don’t mention about that family…’ As she persisted the farmer reluctantly explained that during the deluge the previous night their house had collapse, killing all of the family members inside. They were being burned on a single funeral pyre. In a single night and day Patacara had lost her entire family. In that moment she lost her mind and became mad with grief. Tearing off her clothes, she wandered around the village weeping and wailing:
‘Both my sons are dead, my husband lies dead on the road; my mother, my father and my brother burn together on the same funeral pyre!’ the villagers abused her, throwing rocks and rubbish and shouted at her: ‘Be gone! You crazy fool!.
One day she wandered into the Jetavana while the Buddha was giving a sermon. The devoted disciples tired to prevent the dirty, naked and crazed lady from entering, but the Lord Buddha perceiving her merit and perfections forbade them to do so and called to her:
‘Sister! Return to your right mind!’
Instantly Patacara regained her mindfulness and realizing that she was naked, she crouched in mortal fear and dread. A lay disciple gave her a robe to cover herself with and putting it on, she prostrated to the Lord Buddha and told Him her story.
She said, ‘Venerable Sir! Be Thou my refuge! One of my sons was carried away by and eagle, my other son was swept away by the river. My husband lied dead on the road. My father’s house was destroyed by wind, in it my father, my mother and my brother have all died, even now their bodies are burning on the same funeral pyre!.
The Lord Buddha spoke thus, ‘Patacara, cease your sorrow. You have come to one who is truly able to be your refuge. What you have said is true. One of your sons was carried away by eagle, the other son was swept away by the water, your husband lies dead on the road; your father, your mother and your brother have died. But just as today, so too all throughout the rounds of existence, you have wept over the loss of sons and others dear to you. The tears you have cried are more that all the waters in the rivers and all the oceans of the world combined!.
And the Blessed One said:
‘But little water do the four oceans contain,
Compared to all the tears that have been shed,
Stricken by sorrow and by suffering distressed,
Woman, shy unmindful do you still remain?’
In this way the Lord Buddha discoursed about the round of existence without conceivable beginning. As He spoke the grief which filled the mind of Patacara began to subside. Perceiving this the Lord Buddha spoke thus:
‘Patacara, for one who is on the way to the world beyond, neither sons, nor relatives can ever be a shelter or a refuge. How much less can they be so in this present life! A wise person should purify his conduct, and thus make clear the way to Nibbana!

So saying, He instructed her in the Dhamma:
(288) Neither sons, nor father can a refuge be,
Nor relatives and friends;
In them, for the one who is assailed by death,
No refuge remains!
(289) Knowing the truth of these conditions,
The wise one, restrained by the moral precepts,
Should straight-away clear the path that leads to Nibbana!

At the conclusion of this discourse Patacara attained the state of Sotapanna, and she asked to be admitted to the order of nuns. The Lord Buddha sent her to the community of nuns and directed that she be ordained.
After a time, as she practiced Mindfulness, day in and day out, her mind became calm and clear. And one day, after her alms round while she was washing the dust from her feet, she noticed that as she poured the water over her feet is flowed sank into the earth. The next time it flowed out a little farther and then sank, and likewise a third time the water flowed out even farther and then sank into the earth. In that moment she realized that life was the same as the water: some people died in their early youth, some in the prime of their life, and some in old age.
As the mark of impermanence appeared clearly in her mind, the radiant projection of the Lord Buddha appeared before her and He exhorted her:

‘Patacara, far better to live a single moment and realize the impermanence of the five aggregates than to live an hundred years and never see this truth.’

(113) ‘Although one should live an hundred years,
It would be all in vain,
If one doesn’t see that all does wax and wane.
Instead, it were better by far,
To live a single day,
And know that all in the world does arise and pass away.’

At the end of this discourse Patacara became and Arahant endowed with all the supernatural faculties. Later in her life, Patacara Their gave great solace to other nuns suffering distress, and through her example lead others to overcome sorrow and sadness.

The end of Pain and Suffering

Dukkha Domanassanam Atthangamaya
(To the Disappearance of Pain and Suffering)

This Path leads one who suffers from the pain of illness or injury, or physical or mental suffering to overcome such suffering.
There are many cases in modern days of persons who practicing Mindfulness were cured of various diseases. High blood pressure disease, ulcers, allergies, cancer and even auto-immune diseases have been relieved*.
Indeed purity of the mind plays a major role in regaining one’s health, as does the cuing of Kamma and conditioned formations. There are other cases of those nearing their final breath, who when practicing Mindfulness were able to overcome pain and suffering and pass away peacefully.
The story of Elder Tissa is as wxample from the Lord Buddha’s time.
It is said that Elder Tissa, was one of two sons born to a very wealthy merchant in Savatthi. After their parents passed a way Thissa became the heir of a fortune worth 40 crores.
One day Elder Tissa happened to go to Jetavana to hear the Lord Buddha preach the Dhamma. The Lord Buddha perceiving Tissa’s merit and perfections gave a sermon that spoke directly to the heart of the young man, discoursing that all the money and treasure in the world which one may inherit cannot help us when we die, the only treasure we can take with us in our good (or evil) deeds.
Hearing this Elder Tissa realized the futility of the household life and decided to enter the Order. Taking leave of his younger brother Elder Tissa presented him with the family wealth and said, ‘Now you are the heir of all these 40 crores of wealth, I have no more need of it.’
And with that he left for Jetavana where he was ordained. After some time Elder Tissa received meditataion instructions from the Lord Buddha and went to live in a secluded site in the forest. There he spent his nights and days ardently meditating.
Late one night while Elder Tissa was ardently striving in sis meditation, the brigands appeared, making a loud racket.
‘Who is it that disturbs my meditation?’ asked the Elder.
Seeing the brigands he asked them,
‘What do you want?’
‘It is you we want!’ replied the brigands.
‘What do you want with me?’ asked Elder Tissa.
‘Fearing the loss of the inheritance, we have been hired by your sister-in-law to murder you.’ They replied.
‘But I am not yet finished meditation,’ said the Elder,
‘You are trying to trick us,’ shouted the brigands, ‘You are trying to buy time so that you can run away.’
‘Run away I will not!’ replied Elder Tissa. ‘Hear is my guarantee!’

And with that Elder Tissa took up a large stone with both hands and cracked it down upon his thighs again and again breaking both thigh bones.

‘Now you can see I will not run away, leave me alone now so I can meditate! said Elder TIssa in great pain.
After the brigands departed, Elder Tissa spent the night contemplating the Painful Feelings that had arisen, ‘Pain, Pain, Pain, and reflecting on the purity of his virtues, and ardently striving, the Elder Tissa became an Arahant as the sun rose.

When the brigands returned he said to them:

‘I broke the bones of both my legs
To give the promise you asked of me.
I am revolted and ashamed
By death accompanied with greed.
And after I had contemplated on this
And wisely applied Insight,
When the sun rose up and shone on me,
I had become as Arahant’.
(MA.i,233,Vsm. 1 1137)

And after uttering these words the Elder Tissa passed away into Nibbana on the spot.

(*Medical studies at the Center of Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center have documented a 45% reduction in symptoms of heart disease, a 43% reduction in high blood pressure, 25% reduction in pain, and 31% reduction in stress)

The Right Path

Nayassa Adhigamaya
(To attain the Right Path)

The one who practices this Path will surely attain the True Path, the Noble Eightfold Path, the Ariya Magga.

How does the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana lead to the Noble Eightfold Path?

At one time the Lord Buddha was residing at the Jetavana, in Savatthi, when late on night a certain deity appeared before the Blessed One and asked him the following question:

‘The Inner Tangle and the Outer Tangle,
This Generation is Entangled in a Tangle-
And so I ask Gotana:
Who can Untangle the Tangle?’

The Blessed One replied:

‘When one with Wisdom, and Virtue
Develops Concentration and understanding,
Then as a recluse, Ardent and Sagacious,
One succeeds in Untangling the Tangle.’

All beings in the world are suffering from the internal and external mass of confusion caused by the defilements. How can the beings ever be freed from this suffering? Only when one develops Moral Virtue, Concentration and Wisdom, Sila, Samadhi, Panna, will suffering be overcome.

How can this be realized in the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana?

Where-ever Sila, Samadhi, Panna arise, while walking in meditation even a single step, or while contemplating Rising and Falling is Siala, Morality.
The mind focused on the Rising and Falling is Samadhi, Concentration. And the mind which knows and understands Rising or Falling is Panna, or Wisdom, In this way Morality, Concentration and Wisdom exist within the Rising and Falling.
Sila, Samadhi, Panna, of Moral Virtue, Concentration and Wisdom exist on two levels, the conventional, or mundane level (Lokiya), and the supramundane level (Lokuttara).
According to the Summary of Virtue:
Virtue is a vehicle to Happiness,
Virtue is a vehicle to Progress.
These two kinds of virtue and their results are mundane.
Birth in the Heavenly or Happy Realms is a result of mundane virtue. The accumulation of Wealth and Material Progress are also the result of mundane virtue, Lokiya Sila.
Lokiya Sita is conventional, mundane morality which consists of the rules of conduct or moral precepts such as the Five Precepts and the Eight Precepts followed by the laity, as the Ten Precepts and the 227 Vows of the novices and monks. These rules of discipline help each practitioner become a better person. The precepts are imperative for the precepts are essential for the development of understanding and wisdom which discerns right from wrong, good from bad, profitable and unprofitable states and which leads to a cool, happy and peaceful life and peaceful, civilized society.

Virtue is a vehicle to Nibbana.

One can realize Nibbana as a result of practicing Lokuttara Sila, supramundane virtue, or morality with the supramundane as its object.

Lokuttara Sila is morality leading to and resultant of the realization of the supramundane, Nibbana. Lokuttara Sila is supramundane morality which arises as a result of Insight into the Four Noble Truths, it is virtue which arises from realization of the Noble Path.

Lokiya Samadhi is mundane concentration, or concentration badsed on conceptual devices, such as the various stages of absorption, jhana, or the development of mundane supernatural faculties, lokiya abhinna.

Lukuttara Samdhi is supramundane concentration, or concentrated absorption with Nibbana as the objects.

Lokiya Panna is worldly or mundane wisdom. Both Suttamaya Panaa, knowledge from learning, and Cintamaya Panna thought based knowledge, are external, mundane knowledge which one has studied.
Lokuttara Panna, supramundane wisdom, arises within oneself, it is the wisdom arising from the practice of Satipattahana Vipassana meditaion. It is called Bhavanamaya Panna, wisdom arising from meditation. It is called Bhavanamaya Panna, wisdom arising from mental development. Worldly knowledge, Lokiya Panna is knowledge which can save one’s life. Supramundane knowledge, Lokiya Panna is wisdom which can save one’s heart and mind.

Wherever Sila, Samadhi, Panna arise, The Noble Eightfold Path also exists.
The Noble Eightfold Path consists of eight factors, which are:
1. Samma Ditthi - Right View
2. Samma Sankhappa - Right Thought
3. Samma Vaca - Right Speech
4. Samma Kammanta - Right Action
5. Samma Ajiva - Right Livelihood
6. Samma Vayama - Right Effort
7. Samma Sati - Right Mindfulness
8. Samma Samadhi- Right Concentration

These Eight Path Factors can be condensed into three groups, called the Threefold Training, Tri Sikkha, which are the basis of all the Lord Buddha’s Teachings.

1. Sila - Morality or Virtue
2. Samadhi - Concentration
3. Panna - Wisdom

The Noble Path Factors of Right View and Right Thought comprise the Wisdom Group of the Threefold Training.

The Noble Path Factors of Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood are included in the Morality Group included in the Training of Virtue.

The Noble Path Factors of Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration are all contained in the Concentration Group of the Threefold Training.

Wherever Sila, Samadhi and Panna arise, the Noble Eightfold Path also exists.

Within each present moment Sila, Samadhi, Panna and the Noble Eightfold Path Factors can all be found.

Therefore, wherever the Four Foundations of Mindfulness exist, so too does the Noble Eightfold Path.

How does the Noble Eightfold Path arise in Satipatthana Vipassana practice?

Every stop and every breath taken with Mindfulness is the present moment activates the Noble Eightfold Path factors.

When we take even one step, ‘Right goes thus’, with complete attention, with Mindfulness, the Noble Eightfold Path factors arise.

Each moment that one mindfully contemplates, ‘Right goes thus’, ‘Left goes thus’ or ‘Rising’, ‘Falling’, with clear awareness and careful attention noting the movement of the foot or of the abdomen, that careful attention and heedfulness is Morality, Sila.

The careful effort and heedfulness to stay with the mediation object, not straying after desire, hatred or folly, the attentive effort to remain with meditation exercise is Moral conduct.

Each moment that the mind is skillfully applies to the meditation object and remains mindful in the present moment, mindfully noting, ‘Right goes thus’, mindfully noting,’ Left goes thus’, focused on ‘Rising’, focused on ‘Falling’, not confused, not wandering or straying, remaining fixed on the meditation object, applying effort to stay with the meditation object, mindful of the Body, Feelings, Mind and Mind-Object, this concentrated effort leads one to develop Momentary Concentration, Khanika Samadhi, and deeper levels of Concentration.
The mind thus Concentrated fulfills the Concentration Group of the Eightfold Path.

When one develops concentration, wisdom will arise. Knowing the ‘Rising’, knowing the ‘Falling’, discerning the mind, discerning the body, realizing cause and effect, penetrating and understanding Impermanence, Suffering, Non-Self, the profound realization of the Three Characteristics and the attainment of the Noble Eightfold Path.
This is Knowledge and Wisdom of the Truth of Life, of the Right Path, the True Path, the path leading to the Cessation of all Suffering. This Correct Understanding fulfills the Wisdom Group of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Thus within the mindful contemplation of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’, Sila, Samadhi, Panna and the Noble Eightfold Path can arise and be perfected.

The Three Characteristics


How do the Three Characteristics of all Phenomena (Tilakkhana) appear in the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana?

Within each moment of mindful contemplation of the breath, of the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ of the abdomen, the Three Characteristics can appear and be fully realized.

Mindfully observing the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ can lead one to realize the Characteristic of Impermanence, Anicca. Seeing the arising, prevailing and ceasing, the appearance and disappearance of the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’, one realized the nature of Impermanence.

As one continues to contemplate the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’, variouse painful feelings appear. While mindfully noting the painful conditions, ‘Pain, pain, pain’, the painful feelings may move and change, becoming more intense, unbearable and oppressive. The realization of these pervasive, unbearable and painful conditions is the realization of Suffering, Dukkha.
While mindfully contemplating the inhalation, ‘Rising’, one cannot stop the abdomen from Falling, on the exhalation. With the appearance of ‘Rising’, automatically ‘Falling’ must occur in succession, just as the inhalation must be followed by an occur in succession, just as the inhalation must be followed by an exhalation. When painful feelings arise, one cannot stop them from arising. Whether the phenomena of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’, or the painful feelings, it not possible to control the various conditions which arise. The understanding of this uncontrollable law of nature, is the realization of Non Self, Anatta.
In this way during the moments that one mindfully contemplates the Body, the Feelings, the Mind and the Mind Objects, the Three Characteristics, Aniccam, Dukkham, Anatta, arise within one’s Body and

Mind. It is not necessary to go searching for these Characteristics outside of oneself.
The Three Characteristics reside within the Body and Mind of each person. Wherever the Body and Mind exist, so too do the Three Characteristics. Just like when a person sees a tiger, one sees the tiger’s stripes as well. In the same meaner, the Three Characteristics exist within the contemplation of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’.

The Five Grasping Aggregates

According to scriptural tradition, in the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana, the Five Grasping Aggregates (pancaupadanakkhandha) are the true objects of meditation.
The Five Grasping Aggregates are : Body, Felling, Memory, Mental Formations and Consciousness (Rupa, Vedana, Sanna, Sankhara, Vinnana) Rupa means Body or material from, Memory and perception. Sankhara is the Mental Formations, the volition or habitual tendencies, Vinnana is Consciousness or states of mind and sensory consciousness. Rupa is the Material or Physical Aggregate (Rupa Khandha, consisting of
the Four Great Elements of Earth, Air, Water and Fire). Vedana, Sanna, Sankhara and Vinnana are the Mind or Mental Aggregate (Nama Khandha). If we condense the Five Aggregates into two, we have only Body and Mind.
Contemplation of the Body and Mind as meditation objects is the contemplation of the Five Grasping Aggregates wherever the Body and Mind exist, so too exist the Five Aggregates of Grasping.

How do the Five Aggregates appear in the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The physical movement of the ‘Rising’ or ‘Falling’ of the abdomen is the Body Aggregate, the Rupa Khandha.

The feeling of happiness or suffering, pleasant or unpleasant or neutral is the Feeling Aggregate, the Vedana Khandha.

The perception that the abdomen is ‘Rising’ or ‘Falling’ is the Aggregate of Memory and Perception, the Sanna Khandha.

The formation or conditioned quality of the Rising and Falling, that ‘it’s Rising long’, or ‘it’s Falling short’, is the Aggregate of Mental Formations or Snakhara Khandha.

Knowing ‘Rising’, Knowing ‘Falling’, is the Aggregate of Consciousness, Vinnana Khandha.

Even in a single breath notes with mindfulness the Five Aggregates exits. This is how they appear in the process of developing Mindfulness and Insight.

How do the Five Aggregates appear within ‘Right goes thus’, Left goes thus’?

The movement of the right foot, or the movement of the left foot is the Body Aggregate, the Rupa Khandha.

The feeling of happiness, suffering or neutrality is the Feeling Aggregate, Vedana Khandha.

The perception of the right foot moving or the left foot moving, is the Aggregate, Vedana Khandha

The perception of the right foot moving or the left foot moving is the Aggregate, Vedana Khandha.

The feelings of happiness, suffering or neutrality is Feeling Aggregate Vedana Khandha.

The perception of the right foot moving or the left foot moving, is the Aggregate of Memory, Sanna khandha.

The condition of walking fast or slow, stepping long or short, the conditioned nature of the movement is the Aggregate of Mental Formations, Sankhara Khandha.

Knowing ‘Rights goes thus’ knowing ‘ Left goes thus’, is the Aggregate appear. This is how they appear in the process of walking meditation.

The 37 Requites of Enlightenment
Bodhipakkiyadhamma 37

The contemplation of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ has a priceless value. It can be compared to a medicine, which although only a single tablet contains many decades of healing and beneficial element.
The ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ also contains many decades of beneficial properties in a single moment. Not only is there Sala, Samadhi, Panna and the three Characteristics of all Phenomena, Requisites of Enlightenment (or Factors Partaking of Enlightenment), within the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’
The 37 Requisites of Enlightenment are:
1. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness – Satipattahana 4
Mindfulness of Body – Kayanupassana
Mindfulness of Feeling – Vedananupassana
Mindfulness of the Mind – Cittanupassana
Mindfulness of Mind Objects – Dhammanupassana

2. The Four Great Effourts – Samapaddhana 4
The Effort to Prevent – Samvara Padhana
The Effort to Abandon – Pahaba Padhana
The Effort to Develop – Bhavana Padhana
The Effort to Maintain – Amurakkhana Padhana

3. The Four Roads to Success – Iddhipada 4
Will, Zeal, Aspiration – Chanda
Enegy, Effort, Exertion – Viriya
Purity of Consciousness – Citta
Reason Investigation – Vimamsa

4. The Five Faculties – Indriya 5
Confidence, Faith – Saddha
Energy Effort – Viriya
Mindfulness – Sati
Concentration – Samadhi
Wisdom – Panna

5. The Five Powers – Bala 5
Confidence, Faith – Saddha
Energy Effort – Viriya
Mindfulness – Sati
Concentration – Samadhi
Wisdom – Panna

6. The Seven Enlightenment Factors – Bojjhanga 7
Mindfulness – Sati
Investigation – Dhamma Vicaya
Energy, Effort – Viriya
Rapture, Zest – Piti
Tranquility – Passaddhi
Concentration – Samadhi
Equanimity – Upekkha

7. The Noble Eighthold Path – Ariya Magga 8
Right View – Samma Ditthi
Right Thought – Samma Sankhappa
Right Speed – Sammma Vaca
Right Action – Samma Kammanta
Right Livelihood – Sama Ajiva
Right Effort – Samma Vayama
Right Mindfulness – Samma Sati
Right Concentration – Samma Samadhi

Each of these virtuous qualities exist within the mindful contemplation of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’

The Four Foundations of Mindfulness
Satipatthana 4

How do the Four Foundations of Mindfulness arise with the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The mindfulness and contemplation of the movements of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ the careful noting of ‘Rising, while breathing in, and ‘Falling’, while breathing out is Kayanupassana Satipatthana, the Foundation of Mindfulness of the Body.
The mindful acknowledgment of pain, aches and unpleasant or suffering felling as they arise is Vedananupassana Satipatthana, the Foundation of Mindfulness of Feelings.

The mindful acknowledgment of pain, aches and unpleasant or suffering feelings as they arise, is Cedananupassana Satipatthana, the Foundation of Mindfulness of Feelings.

The mindful contemplation of thoughts and mind states as they arise is Ciiianupassana Satipatthana, the Foundations of Mindfulness of the Mind.

The mindful observation and heedful noting of the Five Aggregates, the Five Hindrances and the Six Sense Bases, etc., as they arise is Dhammanupassana Satipatthana, the Foundation of Mindfulness of the Mind Objects.

The Four Great Efforts
Samapadhana 4

How do the Four Great Efforts appear in The ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The heedfulness and carefulness while mindfuly noting ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ is Samvara Padhana, the Effort to Prevent unwholesome states from arising.

The active process of carefully noting and attentively observing the meditation object and various conditions which occur discards the unwholesome conditions and prevents defilements from reoccurring this is Pahana Padhana, the Effort to Abandon or Overcome the unwholesome states.

The conscious effort to exert the mind and repreatedly apply mindfulness to the meditation objects is Bhavana Padhana, the Effort to Develop wholesome states.

The protection and preservation of the mindfulness and colleted attention, consistently maintaining comprehension and awareness of the meditation object is Anurakkhana Padhana, the Effort to Maintain wholesome states.

This is how the Four Great Efforts occur in the Mindfulness of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’.

The Four Roads to Power
Iddhipada 4

How do the Four Roads to Success or Power come about in the Mindfulness of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The concentration of zeal and intention accompanied by effort of will in the process of mindful contemplation is Chanda, will or aspiration.

The concentration of energy and exertion accompanied by effort of will in the practice is Viriya,

The concentration of consciousness or thr natural purity of mind in the mindful contemplation accompanied by effort of will is Citta.

These are the Four Roads to Power or Success, they appear in the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ when one has developed and concentrated the powers of delighted intention, energy and effort, natural purity of mind and reasoning power.

The Four Roads to Power lead the meditation to the eventual success of the practice.

The Five Faculties
Indriya 5

How do the Five Faculties appear in the ‘Rising’ and Falling’?

The Five Controllling Faculties are skillful factors which fortify the mind, they are factors whose virtue is to predominate negative states of mind.
As one practices mindfully noting the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ one’s attention becomes keenly interested and focused, able to penetrate into the mind and body, readily noting the present moment with Sila, Samadhi, Panna, This is the Faith Faculty.
The determined effort to continue noting intently and consistently, neither over-sleeping, nor eating nor talking too much, is the Energy and Effort Faculty.
The mindfulness and attention, carefully and accurately noting the various conditions of the mind and body which arise is the Faculty of Mindfulness.
Tying the mind to the meditation object, firmly planting and focusing the mind on the object of mindfulness, the absorbed attention not wandering or straying from the contemplation of the mind and body, is the Faculty of Concentration.
The understanding which knows the present moment, understands the mind and body, which realizes the Three Characteristics, realizes Insight Wisdom and Magga, Phala, Nibbana the Faculty of Wisdom.
All of the Five Controlling Faculties apprea in the course of noting the ‘Rising’ and Falling’ in this way. The development and strengthening of the Five Faculties leads to the development of the Five Powers, Strengths, or Mental Fortitudes.

The Five Powers Bala 5
How do the Five Powers exist in the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The Five Powers are five states of mental strength or fortitude. The Five Powers are the staying power of the mind, which leads to the development of Insight Knowledge and attainment of the Noble Path.

The unshakeable and certain faith in the practices is the Power of Faith or Confidence, Saddha Balam.

The enduring effort in the practice is the Power of Effort, VIriya Balam.

The Heedfulness, careful attention and power of observation in the practice is the Power of Mindfulness, Sati Balam.

The single-pointedness and concerted focus of the mind on the meditation object is the Power of Concentration, Samadhi Balam.

The mind which penetrates and understands the true nature of the various conditions which arise is the Power of Wisdom, Panna Balam.

Thus do these Five Powers reinforce the contemplations of the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ in this way.

The Seven Factors of Enlightenment Bojjhanga 7

How do the Seven Factors of Enlightenment appear in the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’?

The Practice of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness is the Enlightenment Factor of Mindfulness, Sati Sambojjhanga
Once Sati has arisen, the mind becomes inquisitive and interested in the process of the various conditions which arise. This interested intention is called Dhamma Vicaya Sambojjhanga, the Enlightenment Factor of Investigation (of States).

Once the Investigation of Dhammas has arisen, invigorated effort arises. This is called Viriya Sambojjhanga, the Enlightenment Factor of Enery and Effort.
Once the Energy and Effort have arisen, zest and rapture arise, delight in the process of mindfulness. This is the Piti Sambojjhanga, Enlightenment Factor of Rapture.
Once Rapture has arisen and suffused the mind and body, the mind becomes joyous and tranquilized, this is called Passadhi Sambojjhanga, the Enlightenment Factor of Tranquility.
Once Tranquillity has arisen, single-pointedness of mind, focused concentration arise. This is called Samadhi Sambojjhanga, the Enlightenment Factor of Concentration.
Once Concentration has arisen, the heart and mind become equanimous concerning the various conditioned formations which arise. This is called Upekkha Sambojjhanga, the Enlightenment Factor of Equanimity.
The Seven Enlightenment Factors occur in the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ in this way.

The Noble Eightfold Path Ariya Magga 8
How does the Noble Eightfold Path arise?

The Noble Eightfold Path begins to arise as soon as

The Noble Eightfold Path begins to arise as soon as one practice Sila, Samadhi, Panna as explained previously.

Right View can be compared to the engine which pulls along the seven cars. The remaining Path Factors can be compared to the seven other cars being pulled along by the engine of Right View.
Once the engine of Right View is able to pull the first car, Right Thought, along, the second car, Right Speech, and the third and fourth cars, Right Action and Right Livelihood will follow after; then the fifth car, Right Effort, and the sixth and seventh cars, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration will all follow along after the engine of Right View.

Thus the Noble Eightfold Path will arise and roll on in progression, and just as the train engine with its seven cars will eventually arrive at its destination, so too will the meditator who realizes Right View and the rest of the Noble Path Factors, be able to arrive at the Ultimate Destination of Nibbana.

The Noble Eightfold Path Arises in Each Moment of Complete Mindfulness.

With the arising of Right View, Right Thought arises.
With the arising of Right Thought, Right Speech results.
With the arising of Right Speech, Right Action occurs.
With the arising of Right Action, Right Livelihood occurs.
With Right Livelihood arising, Right Effort developes.
When Right Effort arises, Right Mindfulness comes to be.
With Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration arises.
With Right Concentration,
Right Wisdom (Sammanana) arises which leads to
Right Liberation (Samma Vimutti)

Right Liberation, is liberation from the defilements, that is, it is the destruction of the defilements through the realization of the knowledge of the Noble Path (Magganana).

The 16 Stages of Insight

When one consistently applies the Four Foundations of mindfulness and practices Sala, Samadhi, Panna, the Sixteen Stages of Insight will arise accordingly.

1. The Knowledge Discerning Mind and Body – Nama - Rupa Paricchedanana
2. The knowledge of Conditionality – Paccaya Pariggahanana
3. The Knowledge of Comprehension – Sammasananana
4. The Knowledge of the Rise and Fall – Udayabhayanana
5. The Knowledge of Dissolution – Bhanganana
6. The Knowledge of the Appearance as Terror - Bhayanana.
7. The Knowledge of Disadvantages – Adinavanana
8. The Knowledge of Dispassion – Nibbidanana
9. The Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance – Muncitu Kamayatanana
10. The Knowledge of Reflection – Patisankhanana
11. The Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations – Sankharupekkhanana
12. The knowledge of Adaptation – Anulomanana
13. The Knowledge of Change of Lineage – Gotrabhunana
14. The knowledge of the Path – Magganana
15. The knowledge of Fruition – Phalanana
16. The knowledge of Review – Raccavekkhanana

The Sixteen Stages of Insight will be realized by the one who progresses in the application of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness and they will arise in this way.

Breaking the Cycle of Samsara
The practice of Satipatthana Vipassana purifies the hearts and minds of beings from the defilement lobha, dos and moha, greed, anger and delusion. These defilements cause the endless rebirth of beings in the vicious cycle of samsara, that is birth, death and rebirth, again and again, without end.
The Lord Buddha has pointed out that the reason beings cannot realize Magga, Phala and Nibbana, is because they are caught up in the cycle of samsara. The reason the beings are caught in the endless cycle is because they are intoxicated by the defilements, which cause vipallasa dhamma, states of perversion to arise in the mind. These states of perversion are the spokes in the wheel of endless suffering namely:

1. Kamaraga vipallasa dhamma – The perversion of sensual desires,
2. Sukha vipallasa dhamma – The perversion of sensual pleasures,
3. Nicca vipallasa dhamma – The perversion of permanence,
4. Atta vipallasa dhamma – The perversion of self.

The world is on fire, burning with the fevers of these four states of perversion. The minds of people are raging with the fevers of these four perversions of view caused by the latent defilements. Because of these states of perversion, beings are caught up in the cycle of samsara and cannot get out, they are burning with the fever of the defilements and can only find release in Nibbana.
The aim of the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana is to cure the fevers of these perversions and to destroy the cycle of samsara.

1. One who practices Mindfulness of the Body cures the fever of sensual desires (kama raga), which cause the illusion of beauty. This destroys the idea that the body is something beautiful and pleasurable, and to be sought after. When one is truly mindful of the body, the defilement of sensual desire will be eliminated from the mind, the mind will become peaceful, and one will not become intoxicated by sensual desires or sensual contacts, not even heavenly desires. One will seek only Nibbana.
2. One who practices Mindfulness of the Feelings cures the fever of sensual pleasures, pleasant feelings or happiness (sukha), by purifying the mind of the idea that sensual pleasures bring happiness. As one contemplates feelings one will realize the true nature of feelings, that even pleasant, happy feelings are fleeting and insubstantial, therefore conductive to suffering, and that unpleasant feeling are also insubstantial and fleeting. One will no longer be intoxicated by pleasurable, happy feelings, One will be satisfied only with Nibbana.
3. One who practices Mindfulness of the Mind cures the fever of permanence (niccam). Contemplating the true nature of the mind, one will realize Impermanence. First thinking about this, then thinking about that, one will realize the constantly moving, changing nature of the mind and of all phenomena. Understanding the transient nature of the mind, one will let go of the idea of stability or permanence, and seek only the security of Nibbana.
4. One who practices Mindfulness of Mind objects cures the fever of self (atta), COntemplatin the mind and body, one begins to realize the conditioned nature of all phenomena, the Impermanence, Suffering and Non-Self. When contemplated, sometimes the condition changes, sometimes the pain goes away, this shows Impermanence; sometimes the condition become unbearable, or more painful, this shows the Suffering characteristic; at times when noted the condition cannot be controlled, it will not change according to one’s will, thus existing according to its own nature, it is Not Self. Realizing Non-Self, one will be able to purify the mind and to destroy the cycle of samsara. One will not become deluded or intoxicated by the appearance of various conditions that arise, one will practice Satipatthana Vipassana with the aim to realize Naibbana.

Nibbabassa Sacchikiriyaya
To Realize Nibbana

The one who practice this path will eventually realize Nibbana according to one’s accumulated merit and perfection, and according to one’s effort and determination in the course of the practice.
The Lord Buddha has declared that if one sincerely practiced mindfulness continuously from this moment for seven years or until the moment to death, one of two results may be attained: the stage of Anagami (a Non-Returner, with no desire or anger remaining) or the stage of Arahant (a Worthy One, the highest attainment, with no defilements remaining and thus not subject to rebirth).
The practice of Satipatthana Vipassana is the heart of all the Lord Buddha’s Teachings. It is the most important of the Teachings, it is the central and key Teaching of all Buddhas, the key to the enlightenment and the practice path tread by all Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas, Silent Buddhas and Noble Disciples.

These are the Five Aims of this Path to Purity:

To the Purification of Beings, to Overcome Sorrow and Sadness, to the Destruction of Pain and Suffering, to Attain the Right Path, to Realize Nibbana.

The way to realize these aims is to practice the Four Foundation of Mindfulness, they are true benefits which can be realized in this lifetime.

The Four Assurances
The Lord Buddha has furthermore guaranteed the realization of Nibbana with the following assurance:

1. Mindfulness – Sati: When one is near death, one will have mindfulness. All of the wholesome and meritorious deeds which one has cultivated will converge in the mind, thus bringing on a happy and mindful consciousness in the moment of death.
2. Happiness – Sukkhati: After death one will be reborn in the Happy abodes, or Heavenly Realms.
3. Destiny, Tendency – Upanissaya: The potential to realize Nibbana has been germinated, if not in the present lifetime, then in a future existence. Just like Yasa Thera who was immediately after listening to discourse given by the Lord Buddha:

It is said that during the time Lord Buddha was residing in Isipatana (near Benares) after Turning the Wheel of Dhamma, Yasa the son of a very wealthy treasurer’s family in benares, Yasa the son of a very wealthy treasure’s family in Benares awoke one night to see his servants sleeping in various disgusting positions. He was so shocked and horrified by the sight that, putting on his golden slippers, he escaped from his mansion and headed towards Isipatan, crying in distress:

‘Alas! What horror! Alas! What distress!’

The Lord Buddha saw him in the distance and called to him:

Come Yasa! Here there is no horror, here there is no distress!’

Thrilleds with rapture, Yasa took off his slippers and sat down beside the Lord Buddha who gave him a discourse. At the end of the discourse Yasa had realized the Dhamma.
Yasa’a father appeared in search of Yasa, and full of anxiety approached the Lord Buddha, asking if the Blessed One had seen his son, as the Lord Buddha by exercise of his supernatural powers had made Yasa invisible to him.

The Blessed One preached the Dhamma to Yasa’s father who then took Refuge in the Triple Gem (Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha: thus becoming the first male lay disciple to take refuge in the Three Gems), and Yasa who had also been listening became as Arahant.
When Yasa appeared before his father, his father requested him to return home. The Buddha declared that the household life had no attraction for Yasa as he had become an Arahant, and then Yasa’s father granted Yasa permission to enter the Order. The next day, Elder Yasa’s father invited the Lord Buddha and Elder Yasa to take a meal at his house. At the end of the meal, the Lord Buddha preached to Elder Yasa’s mother and all of servants, who took refuge in the Three Gems (thus becoming the first female lay disciple to take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha).
Afterwards Elder Yasa returned to the Deer Park at Isipatana where the Lord Buddha and his retinue of monks resided. The other monks who had been ordained longer and who had been struggling to reach enlightenment were surprised at the quick attainment of Elder Yasa. The Lord Buddha explained that Yasa Thera had been hard at work in previous lifetimes, that he had planted the seeds of enlightenment long ago in former Buddha Ages. He has here in this lifetime reaped the fruit of his Earnest Wish.
4. Nirvana – Nibbana: If one continuously practices Satipatthana Vipassana for seven years, one will realize one of two results in this lifetime: Either the stage of a Non-Returner, Anagami, one who will be reborn in the Pure Abodes a final time before entering Nibbana, or a Worthy One, an Arahant, an enlightened person, who is no longer subject to rebirth and who will pass into Nibbana.

Yadidam Cattaro Satipatthana
That is to say,
The Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

And what are the Four?
1. Mindfulness of the Body - Kayanupassana
2. Mindfulness of Feelings - Vedanamupassana
3. Mindfulness of the Mind - Cittanupassana
4. Mindfulness of Mind Objects - Dhammanupassana

The Foundations of Mindfulness and the Five Aggregates are related as follow:
1. Kayanupassana Satipatthana – The Foundation of Mindfulness of the Body: Mindful contemplation of the Body or Rupa Khandha (the aggregate of Body or Physical From) which includes contemplation of all movements, positions and elements of the Body.
2. Vedananupassana Satipatthana – The FOundaton of Mindfulness of Feelings: Mindful Contemplation of Feelings or Vedana Khadha (the Aggregate of Feeling), which includes contemplation of Pleasant, Unpleasant and Neutral Feelings.
3. Cittanupassana Satipatthana – The Foundation of Mindfulness of the Mind: Mindful Contemplation of the Mind, Vinnana Khandha (the Aggregate of Consciousness), which includes contemplation of the mind and states of consciousness.
4. Dhammanupassana Satipatthana – The Foundation of Mindfulness of Mind Objects: Mindful Contemplation of Mind objects or Sanna Khandha (the Aggregate of Memory and Perception) and Sankhara Khandha (the Aggregate of Mental Formations or Volition), which includes the contemplation of the Five Aggregates, the Five Hindrances, the Six Sense Bases the Seven Factors of Enlightenment, the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.

The Foundation of Mindfulness of the Body
Kayanupassana Satipatthana
What is Mindfulness of the Body?

Mindfulness of the Body is the practice of mindfully contemplating the various states which arise through the body or Rupa Khandha, the physical aggregate,
Mindfulness of the Body includes directing the attention to observe and mentally note (or acknowledge) the movements of the feet during Mindful Walking Meditation as: ‘Right goes thus’, Left goes thus’. One contemplates the movement of each step in the moment that is occurs.
Mindfulness of the Body also includes mindfully noting the natural movements of the abdomen while breathing normally during Sitting Meditation. One becomes mindfully aware and notes each movement of the abdomen as it occurs: ‘Rising, Falling, Rising, Falling’.
Mindfulness of the Body consists of Mindfulness applied to the Major and Minor Movements and Positions of the Body.
One mindfully contemplates and mentally notes the Major Positions which are: Standing, walking, sitting and lying down, turning, raising, lowering, etc., and all other positions, movements and activities of the body.

During the formal meditation practice one performs the Mindful Prostration exercise by slowly moving and mindfully noting, or acknowledging, the movements of the hands and body; one contemplates the movements of the feet during the Mindful Walking Meditation and one observes and mentally notes the natural rising and falling motions of the breath or abdomen as ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’, whilst in the Sitting Meditation.

Meditation Exercise One
Mindful Prostration

To Begin:
Start out by sitting in the kneeling position (if possible) with both hands places palms down on top of each thigh, the right hand on top of the right thigh and the left hand on top of the left thigh with the fingers together and the shoulders upright but relaxed. (In Thailand traditionally, men will sit on the hells with the toes on flexed on the floor, and women would sit with the feet pointed back under the buttocks, however if it is not possible to sit accordingly, any method will do, a chair or cushion can be used if needed.
1. Bring your mindfulness (attention) to observe your sitting posture, and mentally note: ‘sitting, sitting, sitting’, each time maintaining a clear awareness of the sitting position.
2. Then direct your mindfulness to your right hand, slowly turn your right hand 90 while mentally noting: ‘turning, turning, turning’, maintaining your awareness with the movements of the right hand.
3. Then slowly raise your right hand with your thumb towards your chest, noting: ‘raising, raising, raising’.
4. And touch your right hand with the thumb to the middle of your chest, noting: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
5. Then bring your attention to your left hand, and turning it 90 , mentally note: ‘turning, turning, turning’.
6. Raise your left hand towards your chest, noting: raising, raising, raising’.
7. Touching both hands together at your chest (anjali), note: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
8. Raise both hands up to your forehead, noting: raising, raising, raising’.
9. Touch both hands to your forehead note: ‘touching. Touching, touching’.
10. Lower both hands to the chest, note: ‘lowering, lowering, lowering’.
11. Touching both hand to the chest. Note: touching, touching, touching’.
12. Bending the upper body , note 45 : Bending, bending, bending’.
13. Lowering the right hand towards the floor, note: ‘lowering, lowering, lowering’.
14. Touching the edge of the right hand (little finger) to the floor, note: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
15. Turning the hand so the palm covers the floors, note: ‘covering, covering, covering’.

(Your elbow should be straight, some of your weight can remain on your right hand.)

16. Then lower the left hand, note: lowering, lowering, lowering’.
17. Touching the edge of your left hand to the floor, note: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
18. Turning the left hand so that the palm covers the floor, note: ‘covering, covering, covering’.

(Both elbows should be straight, and both thumbs should be straight, and both thumbs should be together, with fingers pointing straight ahead, there should be a space about three inches between your first fingers.)

19. Bend forward until your elbows touch he floor, and your forehead is about one inch from your thumbs, note: ‘bending, bending, bending’.
20. Touching your forehead to the floor note: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
21. Then slowly raise your body until your elbows are straight again, noting: raising, raising, raising’.
22. And turning your right hand 90 again, note: turning, turning, turning’.
23. Raise your right hand to your chest, noting: ‘raising, raising, raising’.
24. Touching the middle of your chest, noting: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
25. Then turn your left 90 noting: ‘turning, turning, turning’.
26. Raise your left hand up to your chest and your body upright simultaneously, noting: ‘raising, raising, raising’.
27. Touching both hands together to the middle of your chest (anjali), note: touching, touching, touching’.
28. Raise both hands to your forehead noting: ‘raising, raising, raising’.
29. Touch both hands to your forehead, noting: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
30. Lower both hands to your chest, noting: ‘lowering, lowering, lowering’.
31. Touching both hands to your chest, note: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
32. Repeat steps 12-31 two more times.
33. Lower your right hand towards the top of your right thigh note: ‘lowering, lowering, lowering’.
34. Touch the edge of your right hand to your right thigh, note: ‘covering, covering, covering’.
35. Turn your right hand towards the top of your left thigh, note: covering, covering, covering’.
36. Lower your left hand so that the palm covers your thigh note: ‘covering, covering, covering’.
37. Touching the edge of your left hand to the top of your left thigh, noting: ‘touching, touching, touching’.
38. Now you have returned to the original sitting position, note: ‘sitting, sitting, sitting’.
39. Now you have returns to the original sitting position, note: ‘sitting, sitting, sitting’.

(Note: The Mindful Prostration Exercise should be performed in a moderately slow speed. It should take about 1-3 minutes to complete, depending upon the individual. The movements should be slow enough to promote mindfulness and comprehension, but not so slow that the mind begins to wander. Neither should the movements become hurried, with the attention rushing to the future object. Mindfulness should be in the present time.)

Standing Up
Continue the meditation exercise by slowly stand up while carefully noting each action as you change your posture from he kneeling position to the standing position.

(Note: Be extremely careful if your legs of feet are ‘sleeping’ or numb. Wait mindfully until the feeling returns to your feet before standing up, simply acknowledge: ‘waiting, waiting, waiting’ or ‘numb, numb, numb’, thus mindful of the sensation.)

When you are ready, stand up slowly and carefully, observing each movement as much as you can, as naturally as you can. Try not to create an artificial type of action in order to acknowledge.

As you stand up, carefully note each movement: For instance: ‘Bending, bending, bending’, ‘touching, touching, touching’, or leaning, leaning, leaning’, or ‘standing, standing, standing, etc. according your nature method of standing up.

Once in the standing posture, make sure you shoulders, neck and head are upright but relaxed.

Lower your eyes until your gaze is approximately a plough’s length ahead of you (about 45 ) along your path.

Slowly move both feet evenly together, so that the toes are pointing forward with your feet a comfortable distance apart, while mentally nothing: ‘stepping, stepping, stepping’, then bring both hands together, either in front of you, or behind your back, noting, ‘moving, moving, moving’, then ‘touching, touching, touching, and then ‘holding, touching, touching, and then ‘holding, holding, holding’, The right hand should be holding the left hand in a relaxed hand clasp.

Meditation Exercise Two
Walking Meditation

Contemplate the actual standing position thus: ‘Standing, standing, standing’.
Then bring your mindfulness to your right foot and take a simple step forward about one foot’s length. As you engage the movement of the foot, begin to acknowledge and carefully note the movement: ‘Right goes thus’.
The foot should be lifted up, moved forward and placed down in a single action. As you contact the floor your attention should be on the completion of the movement and your acknowledgment should be ‘thus’. In other words, as you engage the movement of the foot, you should note: ‘Right’, as you move the foot forward, you should note: ‘goes’ and as you place the foot down upon the ground, you should not: ‘thus’, in actual time with the natural flow of the movement.
After the completion of the right step, do not move yet. Hold the position with both feet planted firmly on the ground for a split second while both feet planted firmly on the ground for a split second whole you bring your attention to the left foot and begin to engage the movement, again noting in time with the movement: ‘Left goes thus’.

Carefully note each step: ‘Right goes thus, Left goes thus, Right goes thus, Left goes thus’, one at a time.

At the end of the path bring both feet together while noting: ‘Stopping, stopping, stopping’.

Then note the standing position: ‘Standing, standing, standing’.

Turn the right foot 90 , noting, Turning’, then turn the left foot 90 and note: ‘Turning’. Again turn the right foot 90 while noting: ‘Turning’, and turn the left foot another 90 and note: Turning’.

You have now turned around 180 and are ready to continue walking in the other direction.

Contemplate your standing posture again, mentally noting: ‘Standing, standing, standing’.

Then continue the Walking Meditation, while noting, ‘Right goes thus, Left goes thus, Right goes thus, Left goes thus’, etc., in the present time with each step.

Continue this method of Mindful Walking Meditation for the period of time prescribed or for approximately 10-15 minutes if you are a beginner.

Meditation Exercise Three
Sitting Meditation
At the end of the Walking Meditation, slowly and mindfully take up the sitting position, carefully noting each movement.
It is recommended to sit in the lotus, half-lotus or Burmese position, with the right leg on top of, or in front of, the left leg, and with the right hand placed on top of the left hand, resting on the lap, the tips of both thumps touching.
The position of the body should be straight, with the head, neck and shoulders upright, but relaxed.

Close your eyes and breathe normally through your nose, keeping your mouth closed and your tongue relaxed.

As you are breathing normally, in a relaxed manner, bring your attentive awareness to observe the area of your abdomen.

Notice that as you inhale, your belly expands, or rises. And as you exhale, your belly contracts, or falls.

Observe the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ actions of the abdomen.
Mindfully note: ‘Rising’ as you breathe in and ‘Falling’ as you breathe out, in time with the natural movements of the abdomen.

Continue noting, ‘Rising, Falling, Rising, Falling, Rising, Falling,’ etc. throughout the sitting period. (Approximately 10-15 minutes for beginners.)

(Note: Usually the Mindful Prostration, the Walking Meditation and the Sitting Meditation will be preformed in the same location, the area of the meditation room needn’t be very large. A small or medium size room with enough space to walk to and fro, and which is fairly quiet will do. It is recommended space to walk without shoes. If it is not possible to sit on the floor, a cushion(s) or a bench or chair may be used. The sitting position should be relaxed but stable.)

Reclining and Sleeping

As you prepare to sleep at night or rest during the day, mindfully recline the body, while noting, ‘reclining, reclining, reclining,’ or ‘lying, lying, lying’.
While you are lying down resting, mentally note, ‘Rising’, ‘Falling’, until you fall asleep.
Once you awaken, try to observe and make note of ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ as soon as you become aware of it.

Minor Positions of the Body
All other movements an positions of the body should be contemplated mindfully, from the moment one awakens in the morning until one sleeps at night. That means mindfully noting each actins as it occurs, For instance, one may note ‘raising’ lowering, bending, stretching, scratching, reaching, turning, twisting, setting’, etc., as much as possible. Every action should be notes in the present moment.
The mindful contemplation of these Major and Minor Positions and Movements of the Body during the Meditation Exercise and during one’s daily activities are all included in the Foundation of Mindfulness of the Body.

The Foundation of Mindfulness of Feelings
Vedananupassana Satipatthana

What is Mindfulness of Feelings?

The Foundation of Mindfulness of Feeling includes awareness and mindful contemplation of the various conditions that arise though the Feeling Aggregate, or Vedana Khandha, This includes mindfulness of the three kinds of Feelings, Happiness, Sukha Vedana, Suffering, Dukkha Vedana, and Neutral, Upekkha Vedana.

With clear comprehension and mindfulness one notes, ‘Pain, pain, pain,’ etc., when Painful or Suffering feelings arise. This is contemplation of Dukkha Vedana.

With clear awareness and mindfulness one note, ‘Pleasant, pleasant, pleasant,’ or ‘Happy, happy, happy,’ when Pleasant or Happy Feelings arise, thus contemplating Sukha Vedana.

Or When neither Happy Feeling nor Suffering Feelings occurs, one becomes aware and mindfully notes, ‘Neutral, neutral, neutral,’ or ‘Indifferent, indifferent, indifferent’. This is called Neutral Feeling or Upekkha Vedana.

The Foundation of Mindfulness of the Mind
Cittanupassana Satipatthana

What is Mindfulness of the Mind?

The Foundation of Mindfulness of the Mind is mindful contemplation of the various conditions which arise in the Mind, Vinnana Khandha, the Aggregate of Consciousness. This is contemplation of the mind states, thoughts or consciousness states as they appear.
Is your mind filled with desire? Dose your mind contain anger? Is it a deluded mind? Focused? Unfocused? Clam? Or, distracted?
One should become aware of these Mind States and mindfully note them as soon as they arise:

‘Desire, desire, desire,’
‘Angry, angry, angry,’
‘Deluded, deluded, deluded,’
‘Focused, focused, focused,’
‘Unfocused, unfocused, unfocused,’
‘Calm, calm, calm,’
‘Distracted, distracted, distracted,’
‘Thinking, thinking, thinking,’ etc.

The Foundation of Mindfulness of Mind Objects
Dhammanupassana Satipatthana
What is Mindfulness of Mind Objects?

The objects of contemplation in Dhammanupassana Satipatthana, the Foundation of Mindfulness of Mind Objects, or conditioned states, are the Sanna Khnadha and the Sankhara Khandha.
Sanna Khandha is the Aggregate of Memory or Perception, it is the memory or making function of the mind. Sankhara Khandha is the Aggregate of Mental Formations, it includes volition, habitual tendencies and conditioned or Karmic formations.
When a thought arises, one should mindfully note, ‘Thinking, thinking, thinking’.
If one enjoys the thought, one should then mindfully note, ‘Enjoying, enjoying, enjoying’. This is one of the groups of Mind Objects, called the Five Hindrances, or Nivarana 5, which includes: Craving or sensual desire (kama chanda), anger or ill will (byapada), sloth and doubt or skepticism (vicikiccha).
All of these Mind objects should be noted precisely, accordingly as they arise in the present moment.
Should mental images or visions, (nimitta) such as lights, colors, pictures, trees, mountains, etc., appear in the mind, make sure to mindfully note: ‘Seeing, seeing, seeing,’ as soon as you can.
Don’t get excited or become worried about these vision, simply mindfully note them accordingly and mentally note any of the Five Hindrances which may arise. Then return to the ‘Rising’ and ‘Falling’ of the abdomen.
Likewise with any other sensory contact:

• If you see a visual object, note: ‘Seeing, seeing, seeing.’
• If you hear a sound, note: ‘Hearing, hearing, hearing.’
• If you smell a scent, good or bad, note: Smelling, smelling, smelling.’
• If you taste something sweet, sour, spicy, bitter, etc., note: Tasting, tasting, tasting.’
• If your feel a contact, hot cold, soft, hard, wet, dry, itchy, etc., not accordingly: ‘Hot, hot, hot, cold, cold, cold,’ etc., or ‘feeling, feeling, feeling.’
• If you think of something, note: Thinking, thinking, thinking.’

These are also Mind Objects, the Six Sense Doors, and should be noted as they arise in the present moment.

To summarize, the practice of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness is simply applying Mindfulness to contemplate in each present movement whatever conditions arise, though the Body and through the Mind.

What are we doing? What are we feeling? What are we thinking? How are we reaching? In this way we contemplate in the present moment only, not in the past, not in the future, not even one second away.

Supporting Conditions
Just as when one wishes grow a tree or plant, one much fertilize and cultivate the ground, we can also fertilize and cultivate our practice by applying unbroken Mindfulness to the Major and Minor Positions of the Body, Iriyapatha.
We should be mindful at all times, in every position Whether walking, sitting, standing, lying, we should acknowledge all of our positions and actions, without at break or a crack in between acknowledgments. Only then will the power of Sati increase and lean us to realize Arahanta Magga, Arahanta Phala.
Just like Ananda Thera, who after striving in Walking Meditation one whole night, realized that he was over-exerting himself, and deciding to change his position, and began to lie down. His Mindfulness was so clear and precise in the moment of reclining that he became an Arahant before his head touched the pillow. In this way Mindfulness of the Iriyapatha has much value in the practice, and one shouldn’t become careless or lazy.

The Lord Buddha taught that there are five benefits which result from Mindful Walking Meditation.

1. Walking meditation builds the endurance to walk very long distances.
2. Walking meditation develops the patience and tolerance to persevere.
3. Walking meditation aids in the digestion and assimilation of food.
4. Walking meditation eliminates disease and illness from one’s body.
5. Walking meditation increases the power of concentration.

The acknowledgment of thus or ing, as in ‘Right goes thus’ or ‘Ris-ing’ is a way of increasing the power of Momentary Concentration, Khanika Samadhi. This way of mentally noting develops the power of Mindfulness so that one can realize the various stages of Insight. It enables the mind to clearly perceive the body and mind, and the Three Characteristics, clearly.
(In the Thai language, the Objects of Mindfulness are mentally notes with naw as a suffix meaning thus, or like this. The acknowledgment with naw (‘pong naw’, ‘yupe naw’ – ‘Rising thus’, ‘Falling thus’, etAcc.,) increases the awareness and comprehension of the object, as well as develops the continuity of Mindfulness, which in turn improves the Faculties of Wisdom and Concentration.

We should not discard the acknowledgment of The Six Sense Bases. Each condition that arises through the Sense Doors, Ayatana 6, the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body or the mind should be noted, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, or thinking, One should be attentive and mindful of the Six Sense Doors, as all good and evil states enter the mind through these doors. One should also note, thinking, whether thinking good thoughts or bad thoughts. Then the Six Sense Faculties, Indriya, will become purified.
According to the Patisampida Atthakatha, one’s practice is accelerated by various helpful conditions according to one’s disposition and perfections, there are Seven Supporting Conditions, Sappaya Dhamma 7, which facilitate the progress and development of Insight Knowledge.

1. One should avoid working.
2. One should avoid oversleeping
3. One should avoid talking.
4. One should avoid socializing.
5. One should avoid going to entertaining events.
6. One should avoid overeating.
7. One should guard the Six Sense Doors.

Essentials of the Practice
In the Practice of Satipatthana Vipassana it is helpful to apply the following fundamental elements:
1. Present Moment – Paccupanna Dhamma: It is very important to maintain mindfulness in the present moment. Whether one I contemplation, ‘Rising’, ‘Falling’ or ‘Right goes thus’. ‘Left goes thus’, it is essential to keep noting in the present time as soon as the meditation object occurs.

The mind which notes ‘Rising’ and the abdomen which rises should occur in the same moment – not before, not afterwards. The mind which notes ‘Falling’ and the abdomen which falls should occur in the same moment together.

In the moment that one begins to acknowledge ‘Right…’ one should engage the movement of the right foot immediately.

In the moment that one acknowledges ‘goes….o one should immediately continue with the forward motion of the foot.

In the moment that one acknowledges ‘thus..’ one should place the foot down to the floor at exactly the same time. ‘Left goes thus’, should be practiced in the same manner as ‘Right goes thus’.

2. Continuity: One should practice with unbroken and continuously applies mindfulness. After one has performed the Mindful Prostration exercise, one should carefully and mindfully stand up and continue with the Mindful Walking Meditation and then the Sitting Meditation exercise, noting each and all of the movements, feelings, thoughts and conditions which appear during the session.

While one is resting, one should note the minor movements or positions, such as washing one’s face, taking a shower, eating or drinking, or relieving oneself, stretching, bending, even lying down observing ‘Rising’, ‘Falling’ until one to goes to sleep. One should note all of these activities attentively, as much as possible.
The Mindful Prostration brings the mindfulness to the movements of each hand. Walking Meditation brings the mindfulness to the actions of the foot. Sitting Meditation trains the mindfulness on the motions of the abdomen.

3. Diligent Effort, Mindfulness and Comprehensive Awareness – Atapi, Satima, Sampajano:

One must have the diligent effort, Atapi, to practice wholeheartedly and sincerely.
One must have the memory and recollection, Saitma, to accurately note whatever conditions arise in the body and mind on time.
One must apply clear awareness and comprehension, Sampajano, while acknowledging the body and mind at each moment, guarding one’s meditation object, just like a one-eyed man must be mindful and aware, guarding his remaining eye at all times.

4. Balance the Faculties/Power: One should keep the Five Faculties (or Powers) evenly balanced.

Faith (Saddha) should be balanced with Wisdom (Panna)

Energy and Effort (Viriya) should be balanced with Concentration (Samadhi).

Mindfulness (Sati) is the controlling and balancing Faculty. The stronger Mindfulness is the better.

If Confidence is strong, but Wisdom is weak, desire (lobha), will arise.

If Wisdom is strong, and Confidence is weak, doubt (vicikiccha) will arise.

If Energy and Effort is strong, but Concentration is weak, worry and restlessness (uddhacca-kukkucca) will arise.

If concentration is strong, and Energy and Effort is weak, sloth and torpor (thina-midha) will occur.

The Present Moment

If mindfulness is not developed and sustained in the present moment the practice will not lead to the resultant Insight Wisdom.

At each stage of the practice, mindfulness in the present moment is essential. It is mindfulness is the present moment which allow for Khanika Samadhi to arise and become focused, enabling the Insight Knowledges to arise. Momentary Concentration severs to focus on the object of meditation, leading to Insight which discerns the Body and Mind clearly, and gradually progressing to the higher stages of Insight Knowledge.

Once one has reached the 14th stage of Insight, Magganana, the Knowledge of the Path, the strengthened Faculties and Powers will arise together and destroy the defilements automatically, without any kind of external aid. It is necessary only to practice correctly according to the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

The mental note or acknowledgment is the heart of the practice of Satipatthana Vipassana.

It is the function of Sati to observe, acknowledge and be aware of whatever arises in each moment. The process of noting severs any negative mental states which arise. Sati sharpens and supports the power of Momentary Concentration, and with continuous acknowledgment bars any unwholesome stare from entering the mind.

The continuity of the acknowledgment acts as a shield which prevents defilements from entering the mind. The balanced and sharpened Faculties act as a knife cutting off defilements which have arisen.

Insight and realization into the Truth will arise when one ardently practices the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. The true value of life can be known in the present moment.

Progressive Practice and Vipassananana

As you continue to practice, applying diligent effort with comprehension and consistent mindfulness, the 16 Stages of Insight Knowledge (Vipassananana) will arise, beginning with Nama Rupa Parichedanana (the knowledge Discerning Mind and Body), pregressively until Magganana, Phalanana and Paccavekkhananana, the final stages of Wisdom.
Do not become careless or lazy. Practice every day, in the morning and in the evening, and apply Mindfulness throughout the day. Just like watering and cultivating a field that has been planted with rice seedlings will cause the rice seedlings to grow and mature, so too, as you continue this basic practice, your ardent efforts will create the conditions for higher realizations to arise.
In the practice Satipatthana Vipasssana for the purification of the mind it is not necessary to be ordained (as a monk or nun) all one’s life. One who has no opportunity to be ordained would be able to realize the benefits of the practice just as well, because the purification of the mind is a true condition of life and a true law of nature that does not discriminate against persons due to genders, race or social status.
Whenever one enters the practice with a sincere heart, one will reap the beneficial results, The only differences being how soon the results would be realized and to what degree, and this depends upon one’s accumulates wholesome qualities, one’s Merit and Perfections (Punna Parami) and the continuity of one’s practice.
The beneficial results of the Satipatthana Vipassana depend upon the acknowledgement in the present moment, maintaining unbroken mindfulness, the application of Atapi Sampajano, Satima and the balanceing of the Five Faculties and Powers.
How are those principles applied?
By mindfully noting all the conditions which arise in the present moment according to the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Mindfulness is the key which starts up the system of the 37 Enlightenment Requisites, In order for the Three Characteristics of Phenomena to be a condition for the Vipassananana to arise, they must arise from Ultimate conditions, Paramattha Dhamma, When one realizes by direct knowledge and experience that the Body and Mind (the Five Aggregates) are Impermanent, Suffering and Non self, without any conceptual devices or artifice, but by only that which knows and the object which is known, this is the realization of the Tilakkhana which allows for Vipassananan to arise.
In order to progress in Vipassana and to realize the Tilakkhanan, one much train the mindfulness to stay with the present object (of meditaion). When the concentration has become developed, the mind which formerly enjoyed following the various sensory contacts and conditions will become and focused on the object which is being acknowledged.
The calmed and concentrated mind will give rise to knowledge and vision. Wisdom and understanding which one has never experienced before will arise, allowing one to see and understand in the present moment that there is only Body and Mind.
When the acknowledgment and mindfulness in the present moment improves one will realize that only one object aramanna, arises at a time and then passing away, immediately gives rise to another object. One will see that each object or condition appears and then disappears, arises and passes away. The realization that everything in the Body and Mnd is transitory and constantly changing is called the Contemplation of Impermanence, Aniccanupassana.
As one continues to contemplate the impermanent nature of things, painful feelings begin to appear, aches and numbness oppressive and unbearable conditions occur. The realization of the oppressive and unbearable nature of the Body and Mind is called the Contemplation of Suffering, Dukkhnapassana.
As one continues to contemplate and ascertain the arising and creasing and the painful, unbearable and suffering conditions of the Body and Mind, one begins to understand that these conditions are under no one’s control, that they arise according to their own nature and that they do not belong to anybody, that they are not self. This realization is called the Contemplation of Non Self, Anattnupassana.
The direct realization of the Tilakkhana is true Insight. If one has developed Vipassana to this level, Insight Wisdom can be developed until the realization of Magga, Phala, Nibbana.
There are Four Stages of Enlightenment which result from the successful practice of Satipatthana Vipassana.
1. Sotapanna - The Stream winner,
2. Sakadagami - The Once-Returner,
3. Anagama - The Non-Returner,
4. Arahant - The Worthy one

The 16 stages of Insight which appear in each of the Four Stages of Enlightenment are the same, yet they are more or less refined, depending upon which stage they are working. The Knowledge of the Path, Magganana, in each different level has the power to destroy defilements to different degrees.
The Path Knowledge which arises with the attainment of the first stage is called Satapatti-Magganana, it has the function of destroying the very gross defilements.
The Path Knowledge which arises with the realization of second stage is called Sakadagami-Magganana, it has the function of destroying the less gross defilements by attenuating greed and anger.
The Path Knowledge which arises with the third stage is called Anagami-Magganana. It has the function of destroying the least gross defilements, that is, it totally eradicates greed and anger.
The Path Knowledge which arises with the fourth stage is called Arahanta-Magganana. It has the function of completely destroying the remaining subtle defilements. It completely destroys the defilements of greed, anger and delusion without remainder. Such a person is a Worthy One.

For the one who has realized the first stage of enlightenment, the Sotapanna, three kinds of delusion have been eliminated.

Sakayaditthi, wrong view about self or the idea of a permanent soul has been eradicated.
Vicikiccha, or doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, doubt about the law of Kamma (deeds and their results), and doubt about the Path to Nibbana have also been destroyed.
Silabbatapamasa, Adherence to rites, rituals and belief in wrong practice paths has been eradicated. These three kinds of gross delusion and wrong view have been completely uprooted.
The realization of Sotpattimagganana also destroys gross levels of sensual desire, kamaraga, and hatred, patigha, thus completely closing the door to rebirth in the suffering states (the animal realm, the realm of hungry ghosts, the realm of demons, and the hell states).

A Sotapanna will be reborn in the Happy Realms, Sukhati (the human or Heavenly abodes) not more than seven times before entering Nibbana.
The one who has realized the stage of Sotapanna, is a virtuous and kind person. A Sotapanna, it is a real purity of mind. Because of this Purity of View, the Sotapanna is a person worthy of respect, and is one of the Noble Ones, Ariyapuggala.
According to tradition, if one reaches the second stage of Insight Knowledge, Paccaya-Pariggahanana, that person becomes a Culla-Sotapanna, a lesser-Stream winner. In the next life such a person will not be reborn in the hell states or other suffering realms.
In the next life the Culla-Sotapanna will be reborn in a happy abode, but in the following existence after that, the destination may be uncertain. It is possible that such a person might be reborn in the woeful state.
If one wished to be assured from such a downfall, one should continue to practice Satipatthana Vipassana until the realization of the Noble Path and Fruition, Ariya Magga, Ariya Phala.
Having understood this truth, one should continue to devote oneself to the practice until one realized the higher Paths and resultant Fruition.
One should review the stages of Insight which one has attained until one can completely destroy the samyojana, the en fetters which bind beings to rebirth in the cycle of samsara, and realize the Ultimate Aim and Final Destination of life, Nibbana.


To all of you, of the ways to the Purification of the Mind, there is Only One way, that is the Path pointed out by the Lord Buddha, which is the Four Satipatthana. If we wish to bring ourselves to overcome suffering and find true peace and happiness in life, we should diligently practice Satipatthana Vipassana Kammatthana, because it is only in this way that we can truly overcome suffering.
A life without meditation practice is like an empty and unused field. A life without mental development, Bhavana, is like plate without food, it becomes useless.
This endless cycle of samsara can be compared to a vast ocean, of which the far shore cannot be seen. All sentient beings fall into this ocean and cannot find the other shore.
But if one practice Satipatthana Vipassana Kammatthana to the realization of Magga, Phala, even in the lower stages, and becomes as Ariya, one would be able to swim to the other side and see the shore ahead, one would begin to cross the sea of samsara. As one continues to swim along, that is, as one continues to practice, in no long time, one would arrive at the other shore, one would reach Nibbana. This means one would not be reborn ever again.
To all of you dear disciples and devoted Buddhists, to see a Noble One, Phra Ariya Chao, or to visit with a Noble One is a good thing to do, but it is not nearly as good as practicing and developing oneself until becoming aNoble One.
I sincerely wish that all of you will direct your efforts, not to heaping up and increasing of the burden of things which cannot be taken with you, but to the relinquishment and discarding of the heavy burden which cannot be taken with you, but to the relinquishment and discarding of the heavy burden which you have carried all through out the endless ages and which binds you all into the cycle of samsara, so that you can all reach the Ultimate Destination, the Final Graduation of Life, which is Nibbana.

As pointed out by the Perfectly Enlightened Buddha:
Nibbaba exists.
The Path to Nibbana out the Path exists.
The One who points out the Path exists.
IF you do not walk along this Path,
How will you ever reach Nibbana?

In conclusion, may the meritorious power of this Dhamma Discourse on the Maha Satipatthana Sutta lead all of you Vipassan yogis and Dhamma practitioners to realize Magga, Phala and Nibbana very soon!

Sadhu ! Sadhu ! Sadhu !

***Typed by Pu Promdej Turkkan and Blogged by Huseyin Turkkan, Chiang Mai, 8th.11.2009